Untar Command



This add on is a traceroute Splunk command that takes an address field (ip or hostname) in your events and traces the route to the address from the Splunk indexer. untar a tar. It will recognize Verilog and SystemVerilog syntax in *. The tarfile module makes it possible to read and write tar archives, including those using gzip or bz2 compression. Use the zipfile module to read or write. From the terminal, change to the directory where yourfile. View complete conjugation for untar Explore SpanishDict We've combined the most accurate English to Spanish translations, dictionary, verb conjugations, and Spanish to English translators into one very powerful search box. If detected record size differs from the expected value (either default, or set on the command line), tar prints a warning if verbosity level is set to 1 or greater, i. unzip can extract files from your local system or from an Internet URL. It's pretty much the same concept as a ZIP file, if you know what they are, but without the compression. " This command has a large number of options, but you just need to remember a few letters to quickly create archives with tar. In Windows Operating System, we use the (CTRL+F) and then we give the word we want to search. We all know how to use tar command. tar command in Linux is one of the important command which provides archiving functionality in Linux. This results in a tar file called filename. Topics included in this are how to tar a directory in Linux, tar compress directory command, tar gzip command,how to extract and list files from tar file ,GNU tar command. As announced via the GenBank newsgroup on June 15, 2000, NCBI now uses the gzip compression utility instead of the Unix "compress" utility for all GenBank files, starting with GenBank Release 119. Closes 7340 find: use sysconf(_SC_ARG_MAX) to determine the command-line size limit ftpd: do not use root_fd if we are not in chroot ftpd: escape chroot prior to re-executing ls helper ftpd: for LIST, open current directory *in the child* ftpd: make LIST command show dotfiles too ftpd: support deprecated XPWD command getty: set tty attrs so. ZIP is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix. Number 9 is not a valid Linux alias ipconfig is a Windows command, not linux, ifconfig is the Linux command closer to it, and does not have getifaddr command switch. WinZip opens GZ files. tgz archive files. if it is a gzipped tar file, the first command will always work. Notice that we have added extra flag -f to the command. … directory on a Linux, BSD, OS X, and Unix-like system using command prompt. Otherwise, MATLAB issues a warning. Installing VMware Tools in Kali Linux Rolling. If you want to work with zip files in Ubuntu command line interface, you will need these commands: zip and unzip. gz file in some other. If you are referring specifically to the Zip file format, you can simply use the zip and unzip commands. The first dash (-) here tells tar to send it's output to stdout instead of a file. Install the AWS CLI Using the Bundled Installer (Linux, macOS, or Unix) On Linux, macOS, or Unix, you can use the bundled installer to install the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI). of Copenhagen, Denmark). tar to the present directory. For example the below command will untar the file public_html-14-09-12. The notifies property for the template specifies that the execute[forward_ipv4] (which is defined by the execute resource) should be queued up and run at the end of a Chef Infra Client r. Adding pre-session commands Other options such as Post-Session Success Command, Post-Session Failure Command, On Success E-Mail, On Failure E-Mail can be configured in similar manner. creates, removes, and chdir can be specified after the command. i was able to do with CMD command but dont have idea how can i call that CMD command to SSIS pacakge. Following the stream is a great way of staying abreast of the latest commands. gz files > tar -xzvf FILENAME. The gsutil cp command allows you to copy data between your local file system and the cloud, copy data within the cloud, and copy data between cloud storage providers. rpm The default installation path is /opt/dell/dcc. If you want to download a Linux binary that is close to the kind of system you have, then type the following commands from a terminal window to get the type of system you have (32-bit or 64-bit), the flavor of LINUX you are running (RedHat/RHEL, Debian, CentOS, etc), and the version of gcc and gfortran:. WinZip opens GZ files. gz need to be extracted with the method described in "gunzip". check_output(['sudo','service','mpd','restart']) Subprocess replaces several older modules and functions, like os. zip file1 file2 file3. Installing Java 8 on AWS EC2 Amazon Linux Instance I am not going to waste your time and will instead jump directly towards the commands that you have to execute to install JDK 8 on your new. I use aria2c (sudo apt-get install aria2) For ImageNet, you have to register at image-net. Spanish Verb Conjugation: yo unto, tú untas, él / Ud. Linux Command Line Tutorial For Beginners 36 - tar command to Compress and Extract Files ProgrammingKnowledge. The Linux ‘tar’ stands for tape archive, is used to create Archive and extract the Archive files. How to create a 3D Terrain with Google Maps and height maps in Photoshop - 3D Map Generator Terrain - Duration: 20:32. gz) file on a Linux using command line option? Most Linux and open source software files are distributed in either. Step Open a terminal window by clicking "Applications," "Accessories" or "System Tools" and "Terminal. For output to ordinary files with the -f flag, you can save disk space by using a blocking factor that matches the size of disk blocks (for example, the -b4 flag for 2048-byte disk blocks). We all know how to use tar command. Regular tar command in linux should work. TAR command examples in Unix / Linux December 18, 2016 Linux Commands Leave a comment 32,462 Views The “tar” command in linux used for making archive of files and directories. The same can be accomplished from the command line using two commands, hdiutil and cp. I am having problem with the Terminal. gz need to be extracted with the method described in "gunzip". phar to your working directory. zip file1 file2 file3. 2008-04-14: 1. 7z file ( 7zip file ) in UNIX / Linux ? Can you explain with a simple example? Answer: Use 7za command to unzip a 7z file ( 7zip file ) on Unix platform as shown below. Download Go Click here to visit the downloads page. The full path to this file was determined by using the example shown earlier. Check you have Perl installed by typing the command below into your command line program: perl -v. A zip archive has members compressed individually; imagine gzip of every file before tar-ing them, but with a different format. using the below code: dt=2015-10-31 is the zip tar file and with the below command i was able to unzip it to untar folder. of Copenhagen, Denmark). tar-file-name. For example, to upload all text files from the local directory to a bucket you could do:. Tar command examplesPlease read the article Tar command examples More on UnixMantra. Use WinZip, the world's most popular zip file utility, to open and extract content from GZ files and other compressed file formats. To download the required IPVanish VPN script for Linux from the repository, type the following command and hit the Enter key. I tried using the untar. Here's what the flag -f actually mean-f, --file ARCHIVE- use archive file or device ARCHIVE. I gave you the names of 4 programs which can untar! Do you expect us to hand them to you on a gold platter? Open-source support is volunteer based, and we don't have time nor desire to hold your hand for trivial issues. 2002, John Bryan Callender, Perl for Web site management (page 405) I untarred (and ungzipped) that file using the following command: […]. gz you downloaded. gz) file on a Linux using command line option? Most Linux and open source software files are distributed in either. It can add local and remote files. zip is used to compress the files to reduce file size and also used as file package utility. tgz) GZIP compressed archive. tar-file-name. Don’t be fooled by the fact that it is a command line tool. Make sure everything was tarred Make a new directory and copy the tar file into it. Adding pre-session commands Other options such as Post-Session Success Command, Post-Session Failure Command, On Success E-Mail, On Failure E-Mail can be configured in similar manner. It converts input from standard input into arguments to a command. As example, if your application setup file resides in the desktop and the name of that file is install. Unzip a GZ file using the "gunzip" command or a. gz If you untar the archive as root, you should probably change the ownership afterwards with chown , otherwise the files will end up owned as user # 1000, which may or may not be what you want. How to set up this App. and it's the easiest way to install files/Softwares packages. rpm -ivh command-configure-4. The tar (tape archive) command is a frequently used command on linux that allows you to store files into an archive. #tar zvxf "filename". Here’s what the flag -f actually mean-f, --file ARCHIVE– use archive file or device ARCHIVE. 667 ( Fedora Core 3 ). Unix Interview Questions. log Above command will create a archive file named access. In this article, let us review various tar examples including how to create tar archives (with gzip and bzip compression), extract a single. The gzip program applied compression, hence the gz extension. Short Bytes: In this article in the Linux Lexicon series, we shall discover how to compress and extract files in Linux. mark mechanism. The chmod command is used to change the permissions of a file or directory. The command below will extract the contents of sample_dir. unzip can extract files from your local system or from an Internet URL. The command by default will untar to the home directory instead of the target folder output always returned success but the files were nowhere to be found. how to uncompress or untar. 1) How to find out where you are, the pwd command shows you present working directory. The Linux tar command is the swiss army knife of the Linux admin when it comes to archiving or distributing files. unzip can extract files from your local system or from an Internet URL. Then issue the following commands to unzip and untar the file: >gunzip grazing. Command line support for WinZip is available from the WinZip web site. Short Bytes: In this article in the Linux Lexicon series, we shall discover how to compress and extract files in Linux. nano is a free clone of the text editor supplied with the pine email program. This puts everything relative and you can unpack where you want, but the first option will only unpack in the location where it was first created. How to create a 3D Terrain with Google Maps and height maps in Photoshop - 3D Map Generator Terrain - Duration: 20:32. I use to start Intel EDS command shell in Windows as Administrator, because it has to do some actions which needs permissions of the Administrator. Download Go Click here to visit the downloads page. where the command property for the execute resource contains the command that is to be run and the source property for the template resource specifies which template to use. Z file? - Can anyone tell me the command line to extract the files in this file? TY in advanced. This Page Contains information about How To Tar And Untar Files In Linux Using The Tar Command By wallpaperama in category Linux Systems with 3 Replies. zip archives,. --to-command = COMMAND pipe extracted files to another program--totals print total bytes after processing the archive;--transform , --xform EXPRESSION use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file names-U , --unlink-first remove each file prior to extracting over it--unquote unquote filenames read with -T (default)--no-unquote. It will recognize Verilog and SystemVerilog syntax in *. suf --suffix. sh If you prefer to manually install the client, the following instructions are equivalent to running the shell script. Every 2 days, the NetScaler makes a new log file. tgz) GZIP compressed archive. For example, to upload all text files from the local directory to a bucket you could do:. Meta-commands are commands that are evaluated by psql and often translated into SQL that is issued against the system tables on the server, saving administrators time when performing routine tasks. gz archives. If the tarball has also been gzipped (compressed), you can use the following command:. Install the AWS CLI Using the Bundled Installer (Linux, macOS, or Unix) On Linux, macOS, or Unix, you can use the bundled installer to install the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI). Since macOS is based on Unix there are a number of ways to compress files and folders within the filing system using Unix based application code, below are a few options using the Terminal or command line interface (cli). gz" file in Linux or Unix: The following tutorial assumes the name of your file is yourfile. Add disk back into a Linux MDADM software raid. xclock is a handy tool to test if the DISPLAY variable is set properly and you can get a GUI based clock on running the “xclock” command as shown below. gz extension) and again to untar it (remove the. The tar command on Linux is often used to create. Type tar -zxvf yourfile. gz extractor. To download the required IPVanish VPN script for Linux from the repository, type the following command and hit the Enter key. This is a common archive format. Unzip a GZ file using the "gunzip" command or a. untar makes no attempt to map filenames to those acceptable on the current system, and treats the filenames in the archive as applicable without any re-encoding in the current locale. BUGS The GNU folks, in general, abhor man pages, and create info documents instead. If detected record size differs from the expected value (either default, or set on the command line), tar prints a warning if verbosity level is set to 1 or greater, i. Generally that are compressed using gzip or bzip2. I am able to untar repo file successfully but while installing HDP component, facing below issue. WARNING!, the sudo helps, and solve it, but i dont recommend it. Until recent years gzip and bzip2 are most commonly used data. 1 media package Symptom The AIX default tar command is not able to uncompress the contents of the OP_6. hdfs dfs -put /usr/test /user/input. v: This option […]. unix How can you untar more than one file at a time? I have a bunch of tar files in a directory and I want to extract all the files from them at once. bussys deskapps Products PSS 226 Transfer complete. The untar process will DOS-ify the package scripts The path structure may be lost and the files will be copied to top folder level Note: The first untar problem might be avoided by using these settings in WinZip but will not guarantee the second issue will not happen. There are various way to do it for example using & or nohup or screen command. gz] or [tar. The export and the import commands of WCL use the Open CSV Library. TAR, since this is the only way to determine whether The directory structure inside the tar file is recreated and the file names inside When a file already exists, then the user will be prompted whether to over write Wildcards can. How to Compress or Uncompress Files and Folders in Windows 10 Windows 10 supports compression for individual files and folders on NTFS volumes using NTFS compression. Here are a few remarks on how to download them. Similar Commands. I am moving some tar/zip files to a Linux host. If you want to gain access to the files within an. But it is a useful command to keep in your arsenal if you are a system administrator. gz #tar xvf "filename". unzip(zipfilename) extracts the archived contents of zipfilename into the current folder, preserving the attributes and timestamps of each file. Please note that the unzip method you use is defined by the filename you are trying to unzip. Reading directories is a bit like reading files. 17 useful tar command with practical examples in Linux by Pradeep Kumar · Published September 11, 2016 · Updated August 3, 2017 Tar (tape archive ) is the most widely used command in Unix like operating system for creating archive of multiple files and folders into a single archive file and that archive file can be further compressed using. This option is useful if you are extracting files to send them through a pipe, and do not need to preserve them in the file system. com posts in February 2012 and save them into a folder, then those files are zipped into a tarball. The mSys make version seems to be 3. bz2 Files in One Step Lowell Heddings @lowellheddings Updated February 1, 2017, 10:17pm EDT If you are new to the world of Linux, you probably unzip your tar. Posted on Tuesday December 27th, 2016Sunday March 19th, 2017by. tar command in Linux with examples The Linux 'tar' stands for tape archive, is used to create Archive and extract the Archive files. To do this I must untar the tar. z, -z, _z or. This command is similar to the Linux cp command, but it does not match with the full functionality of cp. Steps Type at the command prompt x= eXtract, this indicated an extraction c= create to create ) v= verbose (optional. How to open or Untar a "tar. Complete command is apt-get. xz archives. gz sbrews (TechnicalUser) 23 Mar 07 10:56 Depending on OS, I've found it usually works better if you "unzip" the file before "untarring" it - instead of trying to do it all in one command. tar file, you must extract the files by entering:. It's not a trick or anything fancy, but just something that I somehow didn't know for a long time that I wish I would have. It will extract file to the current directory. if it does not work, you do not have a gzipped tar file. posted inSysadmin on September 25, 2016 by zeeshan. Command Line Version User's Guide 7z. Zip To install zip if you don't already have it, do this sudo apt-get install zip The simplest way to create a zip file (archive) is zip myzipfile. The installer will check a few PHP settings and then download composer. In the Startup Command field, enter vmware-toolbox. Here is the command that was used to create the file: tar cfz pbible_archive. gz archive named tar-archive-name. --to-command=command: During extraction, tar will pipe extracted files to the standard input of command. 0, the WinZip Command Line Add-On can be used to unzip any of the archive types that are supported by WinZip. In the [rcs] section of the Recording Muxer Script configuration file, configure the trusted_ca parameter as follows: If the TLS certificate was issued by a well-known certificate authority such as Verisign, set trusted_ca to true. In this post we'll see a Java program showing how to untar a tar file. I use to start Intel EDS command shell in Windows as Administrator, because it has to do some actions which needs permissions of the Administrator. Short Bytes: In this article in the Linux Lexicon series, we shall discover how to compress and extract files in Linux. The Linux tar command is the swiss army knife of the Linux admin when it comes to archiving or distributing files. How was the tar file created? Was it created using a full path? or were you in the directory and created with tar -cvf newtar. Before archiving a directory with tar command we can learn the size of the archive with the help of wc command. tgz) x: This tells tar to extract the files. Extract tar archives. Symantec helps consumers and organizations secure and manage their information-driven world. We call this build. can any one help me on this , this is bit urgent requirement to the client. how to uncompress or untar. gz (made today on Ubuntu). (Discuss) Proposed since October 2017. gz file(not an artifact) using maven. 'Unable to decompress' message. In the following examples, we will explain how to untar both popular formats and how to extract the contents to a different directory. To install PGP Command Line on a Linux system (default directory): If you have an existing version of PGP Command Line installed on the computer, uninstall it. On 7-Zip's SourceForge Page you can find a forum, bug reports, and feature request systems. To create this article, 11 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. the second dash(-) with the tar command tells tar to read it's input from stdin being piped to it instead of a file. exe on the path. Copying Files to Tape (tar Command)Here is information that you should know before you copy files to tape with the tar command:. In continuation of our series of Unix tutorial ,i am here presenting article on how to tar a directory in Linux. It will sometimes untar a file and it will sometimes not untar a file. exe file the command prompt pops up briefly then disappears. gz, due to "tar" problems related to long file names included. gz files?) via the Splunk REST API, so I can automate a solution for an install of an app on a remote Splunk server; any other cool way you can suggest. p7zip - the port of the command line version of 7-Zip to Linux/Posix. How to extract. In this guide, you’ll learn the steps to use native tar commands on Windows 10 using Command Prompt and Ubuntu to extract the content of a. This results in a tar file called filename. gz >tar xvf grazing. gzip access. bz2 compression formats and it is important to know how to extract such files. I'll set the output folder to be web/WEB-INF/classes, since WEB-INF/classes is the standard web archive location for *. How to tar, untar files and view contents of tar file under Linux - The Geek Diary. zip on a windows server, copy the file down to my mac via RDC (mapped drive). Chmod command is as useful as UNIX find command or grep command and knowing how to change file permissions is essential skill while working in UNIX. gz file and found the SharpCompress package, which will do it all!. Tar command examplesPlease read the article Tar command examples More on UnixMantra. xz Files in Linux. It has been suggested that Spl (Unix) be merged into this article. File completion is based on the type of command you use. The 'hadoop-hdfs-datanode' component did not advertise a version. This tip is a rather simple but useful one. We recommend that you use a separate SmartConsole administrator account for automation scripts. If you want to create a new tar archive, specify its name after the -c option and then list the filename(s) that should be included: $. The following sets of commands are made available: Command set 1 - A set of commands (ZIP, DSPZIP and UNZIP) based on a Qshell "zip" command automatically installed by this utility. exe then the command would look like these. The tar command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION-OS. The tar (tape archive) command is a frequently used command on linux that allows you to store files into an archive. Using the --drop option will clear any existing collections, effectively performing a full restore. In a sense, it's similar to the zip command. Including of these two options this tutorial will also describes you to use of screen command. To compress multiple files, we can use the following command: SAPCAR -cvf. bz2 which is a tar archive further compressed using gzip or bzip algorithms respectively. What is target marketing and what are its advantages? Targeted marketing is an advertising strategy that involves identification of the target market (customers who have the best chance of being interested in your offer), identifying their needs and offering products and services that satisfy their needs. This command assumes that your username on the remote system is the same as your username on your local system. Linux mv command. gz file(not an artifact) using maven. How to create a 3D Terrain with Google Maps and height maps in Photoshop - 3D Map Generator Terrain - Duration: 20:32. But both GNU tar command and BSD tar command cannot untar the app. Use the right tool to untar the NSX Intelligence deployment file and verify the checksum of the untarred files prior to progressing with installation. Verifying the version of OpenSSL on Windows. Unzip all zip files in a directory into a newly created directory based on zip file name. f: tells tar that a file name is followed. gz tar -xvf. process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file in the archive; this option is valid only in conjunction with one of the subcommands --delete, --diff, --extract or --list and when a list of files is given either on the command line or via the -T option; NUMBER defaults to 1. gz file, and I can't figure out how to untar it. Furthermore, the command can be used to uncompress these archived files and further make some modifications. i was able to do with CMD command but dont have idea how can i call that CMD command to SSIS pacakge. This version contains a Makefile that allows you to make cisgenome directly (instead of typing. We call this build. 7 Linux/Unix gzip and gunzip command examples. In Windows Operating System, we use the (CTRL+F) and then we give the word we want to search. The tar command writes archives using the specified value of the Blocks parameter only when creating new archives with the -c flag. Unix/Linux tar command FAQ: Can you share some Linux tar command examples? Sure. What is target marketing and what are its advantages? Targeted marketing is an advertising strategy that involves identification of the target market (customers who have the best chance of being interested in your offer), identifying their needs and offering products and services that satisfy their needs. If the tarball has also been gzipped (compressed), you can use the following command:. We will be focusing upon the tar, gzip, and gunzip commands along with their. Unzipping Files. gz) file on a Linux using command line option? Most Linux and open source software files are distributed in either. Comparisons of gzip to compress for simplistic sequence data (e. Please find correct mount point using commands like df or some other command that you know. NOTE: If you forget to include the name of the tar file (ie. gz #tar xvf "filename". The package xorgs-x11-apps provides the xclock command. exe (a = alone) is a standalone version of 7-Zip. GZ file using 7 - zip software. Last updated on January 13th, 2019 at 02:36 pm. 17 useful tar command with practical examples in Linux by Pradeep Kumar · Published September 11, 2016 · Updated August 3, 2017 Tar (tape archive ) is the most widely used command in Unix like operating system for creating archive of multiple files and folders into a single archive file and that archive file can be further compressed using. gz at the command prompt (where filename. The tar (tape archive) command is a frequently used command on linux that allows you to store files into an archive. The tarfile module provides a simple command-line interface to interact with tar archives. For output to ordinary files with the -f flag, you can save disk space by using a blocking factor that matches the size of disk blocks (for example, the -b4 flag for 2048-byte disk blocks). If you want to create a new tar archive, specify its name after the -c option and then list the filename(s) that should be included: $. We also use these cookies to improve our products and services, support our marketing campaigns, and advertise to you on our website and other websites. PySUNDIALS is a python package providing python bindings for the SUNDIALS suite of solvers. To use Extract Command Line Helper, type "ext" (without quotation marks) at the command prompt, and then follow the instructions on the screen. It allows for you to quickly access a collection of files and placed them into a highly compressed archive file commonly called tarball, or tar, gzip, and bzip in Linux. Before archiving a directory with tar command we can learn the size of the archive with the help of wc command. 4- put command is also used to copy file from local to HDFS. untar in Windows Explorer, and select 7-Zip from the right-click menu. However, zip files are compressed by definition; tar files can be compressed, but don't have to be. gz files First, ensure that you have a shell running and cd to the same directory as the downloaded file. Notice that we have added extra flag -f to the command. I'll set the output folder to be web/WEB-INF/classes, since WEB-INF/classes is the standard web archive location for *. The tar command is useful for bundling up multiple files and/or directories. How to Install Software from a Tarball in Linux By Joshua Price – Posted on Jun 25, 2009 Dec 18, 2009 in Linux Most of the time, installing software in Linux is a breeze. This file is the Composer binary. Step 1: In extracting, variables (is that what it called) depend on the "tar ball" you've prepped to install. It’s not the easiest way to compress files and folders and users will likely still go for third-party apps that offer a GUI over clunky command prompt commands simply because they’re easier to use. View complete conjugation for untar Explore SpanishDict We've combined the most accurate English to Spanish translations, dictionary, verb conjugations, and Spanish to English translators into one very powerful search box. Though gzip compress ratios are not good when compared to bzip2 but it is popular among masses. The gradle command looks for a file called build. There are various way to do it for example using & or nohup or screen command. by Bharath Raj. Untar linux command line Feb 16, 2010. (PowerShell) Untar a. how to extract file on centos In this post you can see some useful linux commands and examples. Untar file command Untar file command keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. Hi , I have a file like Managerhpux. For details, read the chvg command description in AIX 5L Version 5. cmd/debugnewvm. The file is not a gzipped file but a POSIX tar archive file. Use WinZip, the world's most popular zip file utility, to open and extract content from GZ files and other compressed file formats. Unzip and untar the file by looking at the file in the explorer and double-clicking on it, once or twice to unzip (remove the. You can extract files from a zip archive using unzip. How to set up this App. gz file is nothing, but an archive. You don't have to be a privileged user, so can do it as your own user. tar is an archive utility tool for GNU/Linux. Step 3: Now create a new directory in the root(or in desired path) to mount a formatted drive using mkdir command mkdir mntssd. bz2 File To extract or untar multiple files from the tar, tar. If your command prompt somewhat looks like the image above, you are good to. TAR command examples in Unix / Linux December 18, 2016 Linux Commands Leave a comment 32,462 Views The “tar” command in linux used for making archive of files and directories. using the below code: dt=2015-10-31 is the zip tar file and with the below command i was able to unzip it to untar folder. The name, provider, and version of the box can be retrieved using vagrant box list. For example, a tar archive archive. Can someone explain the basics of running a command line utility on win7? Thanks! General Discussion. gedit is the editor supplied with the Gnome desktop environment. Use the ls command to check the resulting files. Download My Tar Cheat Sheet When you enter your email address below, you'll be sent a cheat sheet on the tar command in PDF format. jar NOTE: You may need to rename the file to end with '.